Surgical removal of the tonsils. The adenoids may or may not be removed at the same time. Tonsils and adenoids are made of lymph tissue in the throat and help the hbody fight infection. The tonsils are on either side of the throat at the back of the mouth. A tonsillectomy may be recommended as a result of recurring episodes of tonsillitis or strep throat, or if they become so large they affect nighttime breathing.